1835) was a leading Italian opera composer of the early 19th century.  After Bellini's death Florimo became his literary executor.. " Not unexpectedly, a further "cannonade" (says Weinstock) appeared from Romani, published this time in L'Eco on 12 April 1833 with both an editor's preface, decrying the poor taste displayed by both sides, and a brief final response from Marinetti.. When it came time to compose the final aria Or sei pago, ol ciel tremendo, the librettist's words gave him no inspiration at all and, at their next meeting, Romani agreed to re-write the text. With that achievement behind him, it is believed that the young Bellini, who had been away from home for six years, set out for Catania to visit his family. By this time, Bellini knew that he had achieved a degree of fame: writing on 28 March, he stated that: Before leaving Venice, Bellini was offered a contract to produce another new opera for La Fenice for the 1830–31 Carnival season, and—upon his return to Milan after a reunion with Turina—he also found an offer from Genoa for a new opera but proposed for the same time period, an offer he was forced to reject. Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer.His most famous works are La sonnambula (1831), Norma (1831) and I puritani (1835). 87–88, Bellini to Vincenzo Ferlito [his uncle], late May/early June 1830, in Weinstock 1971, p. 88, Bellini to his Venetian friend Giovanni Battista Peruchinni, 3 January 1831, in Weinstock 1971, p. 94, Bellini to Pasta, 1 September 1831, in Weinstock 1971, p. 100, Bellini to Florimo, 27(?) Returning to Milan after the Capuleti performances, little occurred until the latter part of April when It appears that by 6 October, a subject had been agreed upon: it would be Cristina regina di Svenzia from a play by Alexander Dumas which had appeared in Paris in 1830. " In his letter, he continues by providing a synopsis, indicating that his favourite singers—Giulia Grisi, Rubini, Tamburini, and Lablache—would be available for the principal roles, and that he would begin to write the music by 15 April if he has received the verses. A palpitar d'affanno (6) A tanto duol, quest´anima (from Bianca e Fernando) (3) A te, o cara (from I Puritani) (10) Aggiorna appena (from I Capuleti e i Montecchi) (2) Vincenzo Salvatore Bellini was born on November 2, 1801 in Catania, Sicily, Italy. By 7 January 1829, with Romani having recovered and set off for Venice to fulfill a contract, the composer was "almost up to the 2nd act". Weinstock describes the premiere as "an unclouded and immediate success" but it was only able to be performed eight times before the La Fenice season closed on 21 March. He also referred to the offer from Naples for April 1836 and noting his financial demands with the questions as to how this might be received. When he arrived in Paris in mid-August 1833, Bellini had intended to stay only about three weeks, the main aim being to continue the negotiations with the Opéra which had begun on his way to London a few months earlier. The need to decide on the subject for the following winter's opera became pressing, although it had already been agreed that Giuditta Pasta, who had achieved success in the Teatro Carcano in 1829 and 1830 with in several major operas, would be the principal artist. She felt that it was "ill adapted to her vocal abilities", but Bellini was able to persuade her to keep trying for a week, after which she adapted to it and confessed her earlier error. However, by 14 February, Bellini was reporting that he had only "another three pieces of the opera to do" and that "I hope to go onstage here on 6 March if I am able to finish the opera and prepare it. After leaving Venice on 26 March, before the barrage of letter-writing began, it is known that Bellini spent some time with Mrs. Turina in Milan and, leaving many of his personal possessions with her, appears to have planned to return there by August since he did not give up his rooms in the contrade dei Re Monasteri. The King led the applause for the composer, resulting in his being called to the stage and thus enjoying a very warm welcome from the people of Naples. His name is listed as an attendee in the Morning Chronicle of 29 April at a performance of Rossini's La cenerentola, along with those of Maria Malibran, Felix Mendelssohn, Nicolo Paganini, as well as Pasta, Rubini, and other visiting Italian singers. Because Lanari had written to him on 10 April 1834 regarding an opera for Naples, Bellini tells him that the first act of Puritani is finished and that he expects to complete the opera by September, in order that he may then have time to write for Naples. Bellini was determined to obtain the parents' permission for them to marry, and some writers regard this as the propelling reason for his writing his first opera.  Eventually, both men got down to work and finished on time, although the premiere was delayed by four days. No contract for another opera in sight, except for the possibility of working with the Teatro La Fenice in Venice. On 2 April, this provoked a response from Romani himself, presenting his case against Bellini based largely on the composer's inability to decide on a subject, as well as justifying all the work which he did after arriving in Venice, only to find his melodramma "touched up in a thousand ways", in order to make it acceptable to "the Milords of the Thames [who] await him", a sarcastic reference to planned trip to London. 160–161, Bellini to Bordese, 11 June 1834, a letter published by Antonino Amore in 1894 (in addition to a draft of Bellini's unsent letter to Romani), in Weinstock 1971, pp. However, as Intendant of the San Carlo, "Barbaja was the chief beneficiary: 'With a small investment he found among those young men the one who would lead him to large profits'" notes Florimo.. , Weinstock assumes that it is Locatelli who replied to "A.B. Florimo immediately began to try to persuade his friend, indicating that Malibran had been engaged for Naples in January 1835. Bellini's music was highly regarded, with the Giornale delle Due Sicilie on 13 June noting that "[several of the arias and duets] are some of the most laudable pieces of new music heard in recent times at the [San Carlo]. Finally, when asked what it was that he was seeking, Bellini replied: "I want a thought that will be at one and the same time a prayer, an imprecation, a warning, a delirium ...". Bellini discusses the tiredness of the singers (after rehearing the entire second on the day of the premiere) as well as noting how certain numbers failed to please—and failed to please the composer as well! We were in seventh heaven. The collection consists of three main sections. The synergy between a specialized music publisher and a major opera theater is an important factor that allows Bellini to Lanari, 5 January 1830, in Weinstock 1971, p. 83: Weinstock notes that Romani had used "Capellio" as Juliet's last name in the libretto. 256–257, Bellini to Pasta, 3 November 1832, in Weinstock 1971, p. 125, Bellini to Santocanale, 12 January 1833, in Weinstock 1971, p. 128, Bellini to Vincenzo Ferlito, 14 February 1833, in Weinstock 1971, pp. Tearing himself away from dalliances with Mrs. Turina, by mid-December Bellini was in Venice where Giuseppe Persiani's Constantino in Arles was in rehearsal with the same singers who were to perform in Pirata: they were Giuditta Grisi, the tenor Lorenzo Bonfigli, and Giulio Pellegrini. In the latter, he mentions that "for three days I've been slightly disturbed by a diarrhea, but I am better now, and think that it is over. Attempting to reconcile the two men, Madame Joubert, who had attended the summer event, invited both to dinner, along with her friend the Princess Belgiojoso. Solemn fiasco!" Bellini to Florimo, 11 March 1834, in Weinstock 1971, p. 154, Turina to Florimo, no date, in Galatopoulos 2002, p. 304, "Capriccio ad uso della Signorina Luisella D'Andreana", [vinˈtʃɛntso salvaˈtoːre karˈmɛːlo franˈtʃesko belˈliːni], Real Collegio di Musica di San Sebastiano, La somnambule, ou L'arrivée d'un nouveau seigneur, the Banca d'Italia 5,000 lire banknote in the 1980s and 90s, Teatro del Conservatorio di San Sebastiano, List of "671 performances of 146 productions in 95 cities", https://www.deutschegrammophon.com/en/cat/4297502, "Vincenzo Bellini": Outline of his life (in English) and list of critical editions of his works published by Ricordi, Discography of American Historical Recordings, International Music Score Library Project, Teatro Massimo Bellini, Catania's web site, Category:Compositions by Vincenzo Bellini, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vincenzo_Bellini&oldid=994212066, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Quando incise su quel marmo" – scena ed aria, seven piano works, three of them for four hands, Kimbell, David (2001), "Vincenzo Bellini" in, Libby, Dennis (1998), "Florimo, Francesco", in, Lippmann, Friedrich; McGuire, Simon (1998), "Bellini, Vincenzo", in. Throughout Bellini's lifetime, the two shared a close correspondence. The impetus to write this opera came about in late summer of 1824, when his primo maestrino status at the conservatory resulted in an assignment to compose an opera for presentation in the institute's teatrino.  The document states that Bellini's first five pieces were composed when he was just six years old and "at seven he was taught Latin, modern languages, rhetoric, and philosophy". While his family wasn't wealthy enough to support that lifestyle, Bellini's growing reputation could not be overlooked. But little is known about exactly how much Bellini or Florimo contributed to the revisions, and Weinstock asserts that no performances were ever given after 1825, but in March 1829, we find Bellini writing to Florimo that "I have written you the changes that you should make in Adelson ".  He reported in a letter to Pasta on 1 September: Pasta's vocal and dramatic ranges were extensive: that March, she had created the very different Bellini role of Amina, the Swiss village maiden, in La sonnambula. He was commemorated on the front of the Banca d'Italia 5,000 lire banknote in the 1980s and 90s (before Italy switched to the Euro) with the back showing a scene from the opera Norma. In order to contract with Bellini, he had to be released from his obligation to Venice; this was achieved by Litta buying out the Venice contract.  When Turina announced that she was leaving her husband, Bellini left her, saying "with so many commitments, such a relationship would be fatal to me," expressing his fear of romantic attachments getting in the way of his musical career. ", As it turned out, Bellini was only able to prepare the opera for rehearsals by deleting sections of the libretto as well as some of the music for the finale. As is revealed by Herbert Weinstock, there is limited knowledge of what happened to Bellini between June 1833 and February 1834, since no letters to Florimo from that period have survived, and the only sources are those letters sent to others.. Walker, Frank, "Giuditta Turina and Bellini", This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 16:55. Bellini to Florimo, 4 September 1834, in Weinstock 1971, p. 158, Bellini to Florimo, 11 March 1834, in Weinstock 1971, p. 159, Bellini to Florimo, 11 March 1834, in Weinstock 1971, p. 163, Bellini to Vincenzo Ferlito, [day, month unknown, 1835 after, Letters from Bellini to Florimo, in Weinstock, pp. Born in Catania, at the time part of the Kingdom of Sicily, the eldest of seven children in the family, he became a child prodigy within a highly musical family. Bellini was the quintessential composer of the Italian bel canto era of the early 19th century, and his work has been summed up by the London critic Tim Ashley as: In considering which of his operas can be seen to be his greatest successes over the almost two hundred years since his death, Il pirata laid much of the groundwork in 1827, achieving very early recognition in comparison to Donizetti's having written thirty operas before his major 1830 triumph with Anna Bolena. In this letter to Lanari, the composer lays down some very strict terms, some of which received counter-offers in August, but none of which were accepted by the composer. Indeed, according to a letter of 1882 to Nadezhda von Meck (quoted below), the very figure of Bellini had for many years been surrounded by a "poetic aureole" in his mind because he had imagined him to be as "childlike and good-natured" as Mozart.  Once Bellini left Naples for Milan, the two men seldom saw one another; their last meeting was in Naples in late 1832, when Bellini was there with Giuditta Turina, before the pair departed for Milan via Florence. Then a torrent of anti-Beatrice letters appeared after the first performance, followed by a pro-Bellini reply, signed "A friend of M. Bellini". Bellini was one of the composers who dominated the so-called bel canto period of early Romantic-era Italian opera. Composer Time Period Comp. He was born in 1801 in Catanina, Sicily, to a family already steeped in music; his father and grandfather were both career musicians. " Their relationship quickly began to deteriorate: greetings including tu (the informal "you") gave way to voi (the formal "you") and they lived in different parts of Venice. List of choral works. 130–131, but its authenticity is suspect. Rehearsals began in early January with the premiere planned for 14 February 1829; it was an immediate and resounding success with the Gazzetta privilegiata di Milano on 16 February declaring it to be a: Three days later, the same publication praised the quality of the music, describing Bellini as "a modern Orpheus" for the beauty of his melodies. 35) Gaetano Donizetti: Fur le nozze a lei funeste (Lucia di Lammermoor) Robert Schumann: Marienwurmchen (op. " From Bergamo, he wrote to Romani, excited to tell him that: After the successful production in Bergamo, which was favourably reviewed by the same writer from the Gazzetta privilegiata di Milano who was not enthusiastic about the original Milan production, Bellini spent a few days with Turina, and then, by mid-September, had returned to Milan anxious to meet Romani to decide on the subject for the following February's opera for La Fenice for which a contract had become official. When no alternatives appeared, he accepted Genoa's offer in February, but it was then too late to write anything new. Only nine months later, Bellini died in Puteaux, France at the age of 33. Hide all works by Bellini. Bellini then dedicated I puritiani "To the Queen of the French", Queen Marie-Emélie. He ends by saying that, if he does not hear back from Romani, he will not write to him again. However, Turina maintained contact with Florimo throughout her life, although [nothing] was heard from her after his death until she wrote a sad-but-friendly letter to Florimo. 179–182, Bellini to Florimo, 30 April 1834, in Weinstock 1971, pp. Accepting the offer 5 January, Bellini stated that he would set Romani's libretto for Giulietta Capellio, that he required 45 days between receipt of the libretto and the first performance, and that he would accept 325 napoleoni d'oro (about 8,000 lire).. There then began what Herbert Weinstock describes in over twelve pages of text, which include the long letters written by both sides in the dispute: Three days before the premiere, the Venetian daily, the Gazzetta privilegiata di Venezia, had published a letter purportedly written to its editor by 'A.B.'  Impresario Domenico Barbaja secured a commission for Bellini's opera for La Scala in Milan. During the final preparations in 1834 for the staging of Puritani and up to its delay into 1835, Bellini had concluded an agreement with Naples to present three operas there—including the re-writing of parts of the music for Malibran—beginning in the following January. Immediately taking charge of arrangements, Rossini began to plan Bellini's funeral and entombment, as well as caring for his estate. By 1822/23, Bellini had become a member of a class which he taught: the older man appears to have recognised Bellini's potential and treated his student like a son, giving him some firm advice: It was during these early years at the Collegio that Bellini met Francesco Florimo with whom he had a lifetime of correspondence. The aspiring librettist laid a complaint against Bellini in a report to Parma's Grand Chamberlain in December 1828 (which was ignored). There are two settings of the Salve regina (one in A Major for choir and orchestra, the other in F Minor for solo voice and piano), but these are less accomplished and may date from the first year of study after leaving Catania, 1820. With its pastoral setting and story, La sonnambula was to become another triumphant success during Bellini's five years in Milan.  Further, on 11 February 1835, Bellini wrote: " my excellent, my honest, my angelic friend! 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